A. P. ジェンキンズ A. P. Jenkins


A. P. Jenkins taught a Hobun-gakubu Graduate School course in Archive Administration for six years until 2003, and still teaches for the Policy Science and International Relations programmes. He holds two professional qualifica-tions in Archive Administration, and used to instruct in Palaography at British universities.

訳:大城美也子 OSHIRO, Miyako

Bettelheim was a prolific writer on Ryukyu (e.g., transla-tions into Ryukyuan language of parts of the Bible, a grammar and a vocabulary of the language, medical re-ports, and a lengthy medical missionary journal that later incorporated English translations of his frequent Chinese-language correspondence with the Ryukyuan authorities, etc.). The journal was required by his sponsors, the (British) Loochoo Naval Mission (lnm). He wrote it on a ‘manifold writer’, an early carbon-copy, folded-flimsy- paper, and stylus system, since he wished to keep one copy for himself.
We might, therefore, expect to find two versions of the journal, the lnm’s and his own, but expectations of archival survival lead to many disappointments. Unlike printed books, manuscripts (mss) are unique and, as such, much more prone to loss. That is, regrettably, the case with parts of the journal and some of his other mss.
英国琉球海軍伝道会は、1861年英国教会伝道会に統合され、英国琉球海軍伝道会が所有していた文書も英国教会伝道会に受け継がれた。そして1986年、それらの非現用文書はバーミンガム大学図書館に特別コレクションとして寄託された(ref.: CMS Archive: L/A1-19, L/F1/1-7)。ベッテルハイムは時折同じカーボン紙を繰り返し使用したので、文字が薄くなり読みづらい箇所も一部にあるが、良好な環境で保管されている。問題は日記の欠落部分である。1846年3月から4月等所々に短い欠落がある。大きな欠落は1846年10月11日から1850年9月後半まで、ベッテルハイムが滞在した8年間の内の4年間に相当する部分が抜けている。英国の公文書館(英国国立公文書館や、英国琉球海軍伝道会の支援者やその最も活発なメンバーらと結びつきのある公文書関連機関等)と、英国公文書を扱うWebサイト“Access to Archives(A2A)”に照会したが、欠落部分はまだみつかっていない。不思議なことに、ベッテルハイムが広東を訪れた1846年3月から4月の欠落部分は、英国琉球海軍伝道会書簡集に復刻が含まれており、欠落部分を埋め合わせることができる。何者かが復刻し、原本を元に戻さなかったか、あるいは破棄してしまった可能性も考えられる(詳しくは、http://www.mundus.ac.uk/cats/44/1226.htmを参照)。
The Birmingham MSS
The lnm and its records were absorbed by the (British) Church Missionary Society (cms) in 1861. In 1986, its non-current papers were deposited among the Special Collections at the University of Birmingham Library (ubl, ref.: cms archive: l/a1-19, l/f1/1-7). They are in good condition though sometimes the mss are pale since Bettelheim occasionally overused his carbon papers. A greater problem, though, is the gaps in the journal. Here and there are shorter missing passages, e.g. parts of Mar. and Apr. 1846, and others, but there is a yawning gap from 11 Oct. 1846 to late Sept. 1850, i.e., four of the eight years that Bettelheim spent here. Enquiries at British archives (the National Archives and those archive institutions associated with the patron of the lnm and its most active committee members) and through the British archival resource Internet website, ‘Access to Archives’ (a2a), have produced no results in the hunt, though the search contin-ues. Curiously, the Mar.泡pr. 1846 gap (when Bettelheim was in Canton) is filled by a transcript in the lnm letters section. Someone, it seems, transcribed and did not return the original, or even maybe destroyed it. (For further information, see www.mundus.ac.uk/cats/44/1226.htm)
 1846年以降のある時期からベッテルハイムは、琉球王府に宛てた中国語の公式書簡の英訳コピーを保管し始めている。公式書簡は1846年から1850年まで続き、大きく欠落した日記(1847〜1850年)の穴埋めをしてくれる。少なくとも、ベッテルハイムと琉球王府との主な軋轢の内容を理解するのに役立つ。ベッテルハイムと琉球王府の間には、多くの軋轢があった。1850年からの書簡は、日記に組み込まれている。書簡集は、1981年にサムエル・向田博士のご厚意により附属図書館に収められたものだが、その来歴は解明されていない。照屋教授を通して譲り受けたもう1冊の書簡集には、1852〜53年の間の、教会指導者や宣教師、英国琉球海軍伝道会の支援者など、様々な団体や個人宛の書簡が入っている(ref.: K190.28 BE, 日記0000502145801, 書簡0000502388451)。
The Ryudai MSS
What of the top copy that Bettelheim took back, not to Britain but to the US? Regrettably, there was a fire at his family home in the late 19th-century and it seems that the journal and other papers were largely destroyed, three sections of his journal only surviving, along with two gatherings of letters.
In 1969, Dr Teruya completed his dissertation and thereafter successfully encouraged Bettelheim’s descend-ants to place the surviving mss in the Ryudai library. By remarkable good fortune, two of those three sections of the journal cover parts of the journal that are missing from the ubl collection, that is to say, 17 Oct. 1846 to 7 July 1847, and 7 Apr. to 16 July 1854 (i.e. the day before Bettelheim’s departure from Ryukyu in 1854), thelatter though also covering 7 Mar. to 6 Apr. The third homemade gathering duplicates the ubl material (2 Apr. 25 July 1853), but that part solves many small problems in the ubl version caused, for example, by careless placing of the carbon paper, as well as indicating what the lnm com-mittee members added (e.g. marginalia and underlinings). To sum up, the Ryudai mss represent something less than one-fifth of the surviving journal.
At some point after 1846, Bettelheim decided that he ought to file and preserve English translations of his official Chinese letters to the Shuri authorities. Those letters, covering the years 1846 50, thus provide a narrow bridge covering the large missing part of the journal (1847 50). At least, they are some kind of guide to what Bettelheim’s principal disputes with Shuri were in those years, for disputes there were many. From 1850 such cor-respondence is incorporated into the journal. The library obtained those copy letters in 1981 thanks to a gift of Dr Samuel Mukaida, though their earlier provenance is un-clear. The second gathering (part of Dr Teruya’s accession) covering parts of 1852 and 1853 are to various bodies and individuals including church authorities, missionaries and lnm supporters. (refs.: k190.28 be, journals 0000502145801; letters 0000502388451)
当時、米国にあったベッテルハイム日記の原本と残っていたその他の書類は、アール・ブール牧師の関心を引いた。20世紀初めに、安里(那覇)と首里を拠点に伝道活動を行ったブール牧師は、ベッテルハイム研究の復興に大きく貢献した人物で、彼のコレクションは附属図書館に保管され、20世紀初期の沖縄研究資料として高い評価を得ている。ブールは、現在附属図書館に所蔵されている日記を、ベッテルハイムが1854年に香港へ戻った後に書かれた琉球印象記とあわせて翻刻した(ref.: K190.28 BE, 日記0000502064998, 回顧0000502064983)。彼はまた、現在では原本の行方が不明となっているベッテルハイム夫人の琉球滞在印象記も、断片的に翻刻している(ref.: 0000502064983, pp. 116 49)。
  The Earl Bull Transcripts
While they were still in the US, the top copy of the surviving journal and other papers attracted the Rev. Earl Bull, an early 20th-century missionary based at Asato (Naha), and Shuri. He was Bettelheim’s champion and rehabilitator, whose collection of papers held at Ryudai Library is so rich a source for early 20th-century Okinawa. He transcribed parts of the journal which are now housed at Ryudai, also Bettelheim’s reflections on his time in Ryukyu, written when the missionary was back in Hong Kong in 1854 (ref.: k190.28 be, journal transcript 0000502064998; reflections 0000502064983). He also transcribed a fragment of Mrs Bettelheim’s reflections on her years in Okinawa (ref.: 0000502064983, pp. 116 49), though the location of the original is now uncertain, as is that of Bettelheim’s own retrospective piece.
Bull was as foxed by the problems inherent in dealing with Bettelheim’s mss as are many others. Bettelheim, a native Hungarian, though describing himself as Austrian, wrote in a hand using the manifold writer stylus for his journal and translations of his Chinese letters etc. As for other problems, one sometimes has to use a mirror to read the carbon impression of the top (i.e. Ryudai) copy from the reverse. Japanese scholars studying that period consider Bettelheim’s handwriting notoriously hard. Not a native English speaker, Bettelheim used words curiously and quite often invented his own. Moreover, his word order in his often tremendously long sentences is sometimes un-English. It is not surprising that Bull’s transcripts contain some errors and gaps, but at least his notebooks are in more robust physical condition than Bettelheim’s mss.